地球進入新地質時代“人類世”
文章來源:未知 文章作者:enread 發布時間:2019-06-04 08:16 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
(單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)
Last week, a panel of scientists voted in favor of classifying the age we are living in as a new geological epoch1-the "Anthropocene"-after reviewing available evidence on the issue.
 
上周,一組科學家在審閱了現有證據之后,投票贊成將我們所處的時代劃分為一個新的地質時代--人類世。
 
Since it was first formally proposed more than a decade ago, the name has been the subject of intense debate among experts. But the 34-member Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) chaired by Jan Zalasiewicz, of the University of Leicester in the UK, decided2 that humans are having such a profound impact on our planet that the term is a valid3 one, Nature.com reported.
 
The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS)-which oversees4 the geological time chart-has yet to approve the new term. But in the wake of the latest vote, the AWG will submit a formal proposal to the ICS by 2021 in a bid to formally define our current era, where mankind is the dominant5 influence on the planet's climate and environment.
 
The vote saw 29 members of the AWG support not only the new Anthropocene designation but also a favored start date-the mid-twentieth century. Various starting points have been proposed for the Anthropocene era ranging from the beginnings of agriculture more than 10,000 years ago to the first atomic bomb blast in 1945 that spread radioactive debris6 around the world-traces of which can still be detected in the planet's soil and glaciers7.
 
Most scientists who support the Anthropocene designation favor the later start date, and the AWG panel agreed based on the fact that rapid population growth and industrialization in the mid-twentieth century-which led to greater natural resource use and greenhouse gas emissions-mark a "Great Acceleration8" on our species' impact on the planet.
 
"The Anthropocene works as a geological unit of time, process and strata," Zalasiewicz told Nature.com. "It is distinguishable. It is distinctive9."
 
The next step for the AWG is to identify a definitive10 geological marker known as a "golden spike11" to include in their formal proposal. This is an internationally recognized reference point in rock layers which scientists use to define the boundaries between geological epochs. The current epoch, known as the Holocene, began around 11,700 years ago at the end of the last glacial period.
 
The panel outlined ten golden spike candidates, which could be used to differentiate12 the Holocene from the Anthropocene, including a cave in northern Italy and a lake in China. They are also considering whether to use traces of radioactive debris-originating from the first nuclear tests-in order to bolster13 their claim.


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 epoch riTzw     
n.(新)時代;歷元
參考例句:
  • The epoch of revolution creates great figures.革命時代造就偉大的人物。
  • We're at the end of the historical epoch,and at the dawn of another.我們正處在一個歷史時代的末期,另一個歷史時代的開端。
2 decided lvqzZd     
adj.決定了的,堅決的;明顯的,明確的
參考例句:
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.這使他們比對手具有明顯的優勢。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英國人和中國人打招呼的方式有很明顯的區別。
3 valid eiCwm     
adj.有確實根據的;有效的;正當的,合法的
參考例句:
  • His claim to own the house is valid.他主張對此屋的所有權有效。
  • Do you have valid reasons for your absence?你的缺席有正當理由嗎?
4 oversees 4607550c43b2b83434e5e72ac137def4     
v.監督,監視( oversee的第三人稱單數 )
參考例句:
  • She oversees both the research and the manufacturing departments. 她既監督研究部門又監督生產部門。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • The Department of Education oversees the federal programs dealing with education. 教育部監管處理教育的聯邦程序。 來自互聯網
5 dominant usAxG     
adj.支配的,統治的;占優勢的;顯性的;n.主因,要素,主要的人(或物);顯性基因
參考例句:
  • The British were formerly dominant in India.英國人從前統治印度。
  • She was a dominant figure in the French film industry.她在法國電影界是個舉足輕重的人物。
6 debris debris     
n.瓦礫堆,廢墟,碎片
參考例句:
  • After the bombing there was a lot of debris everywhere.轟炸之后到處瓦礫成堆。
  • Bacteria sticks to food debris in the teeth,causing decay.細菌附著在牙縫中的食物殘渣上,導致蛀牙。
7 glaciers e815ddf266946d55974cdc5579cbd89b     
冰河,冰川( glacier的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • Glaciers gouged out valleys from the hills. 冰川把丘陵地帶沖出一條條山谷。
  • It has ice and snow glaciers, rainforests and beautiful mountains. 既有冰川,又有雨林和秀麗的山峰。 來自英語晨讀30分(高一)
8 acceleration ff8ya     
n.加速,加速度
參考例句:
  • All spacemen must be able to bear acceleration.所有太空人都應能承受加速度。
  • He has also called for an acceleration of political reforms.他同時呼吁加快政治改革的步伐。
9 distinctive Es5xr     
adj.特別的,有特色的,與眾不同的
參考例句:
  • She has a very distinctive way of walking.她走路的樣子與別人很不相同。
  • This bird has several distinctive features.這個鳥具有幾種突出的特征。
10 definitive YxSxF     
adj.確切的,權威性的;最后的,決定性的
參考例句:
  • This book is the definitive guide to world cuisine.這本書是世界美食的權威指南。
  • No one has come up with a definitive answer as to why this should be so.至于為什么該這樣,還沒有人給出明確的答復。
11 spike lTNzO     
n.長釘,釘鞋;v.以大釘釘牢,使...失效
參考例句:
  • The spike pierced the receipts and held them in order.那個釘子穿過那些收據并使之按順序排列。
  • They'll do anything to spike the guns of the opposition.他們會使出各種手段來挫敗對手。
12 differentiate cm3yc     
vi.(between)區分;vt.區別;使不同
參考例句:
  • You can differentiate between the houses by the shape of their chimneys.你可以憑借煙囪形狀的不同來區分這兩幢房子。
  • He never learned to differentiate between good and evil.他從未學會分辨善惡。
13 bolster ltOzK     
n.枕墊;v.支持,鼓勵
參考例句:
  • The high interest rates helped to bolster up the economy.高利率使經濟更穩健。
  • He tried to bolster up their morale.他盡力鼓舞他們的士氣。
TAG標簽: planet vote humans
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