The emissions scheme row has split the Liberal Party down the middle
Tony Abbott was chosen to replace Malcolm Turnbull at a Canberra meeting.
Mr Turnbull had backed Prime Minister Kevin Rudd's emissions trading scheme (ETS), but Mr Abbott opposes it.
The government needs the support of the Liberals to pass the legislation in the Senate. The Liberal revolt（叛亂，反抗） throws Mr Rudd's plans into turmoil（騷動，混）.
Mr Rudd had wanted the legislation to pass the Senate - where his party does not have a majority - by the start of the Copenhagen climate change summit next week.
Last week he secured Mr Turnbull's support for the bill, prompting the angry reaction from some Liberal lawmakers that triggered the leadership challenge.
Mr Abbott won the final vote against Mr Turnbull by 42 votes to 41. A third challenger, Joe Hockey, was eliminated in first-round voting.
Minutes after his victory, Mr Abbott told a news conference that he would fight the ETS bill.
"We will seek to refer the legislation to [a Senate] committee for further scrutiny3. If we cannot get the support for that course of action we will oppose the legislation in the Senate this week," he said.
"I think on something of this magnitude（大小，重要）, it is much more important to get it right than to rush it," he added.
But if the Senate fails to back the scheme - as now looks likely - Mr Rudd could call a snap（立刻，馬上） election, correspondents say.
The ETS, aimed at reducing Australia's carbon footprint, is the centrepiece（中心裝飾品） of the government's environmental strategy.
Mr Rudd wants to cut Australia's carbon emissions by up to 25% from 2000 levels by 2020.
But some opposition politicians question the scientific case for global warming and the energy lobby says the move would damage Australia's economy.
Australia has the highest per capita（人） carbon emissions among developed nations and coal is its biggest export.
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