A new European Earth observation satellite will be launched in the early hours of Monday morning (2 November 2009) from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northern Russia. The European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity1 (SMOS - pronounced SMOSS) satellite aims to measure both moisture（潮濕，濕氣） levels in the Earth's soils and the saltiness（堿度） (salinity鹽濃度，鹽分) of the surface waters of the world's oceans from space for the very first time. British scientists and engineers have been involved in the mission from the start.
Global measurements of salinity and soil moisture will improve our understanding of how water is transported around the Earth, and how it circulates around（圍繞……旋轉） the oceans, and lead to more accurate weather forecasts and climate simulations（氣候模擬）.
Professor Meric Srokosz from the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, who was part of the international team that first proposed the mission in 1998, says: "The temperature and salinity of the water in the oceans determine its density2, variations in which are important in driving ocean currents. We've been making salinity measurements from ships for many years, but with SMOS we will be able to get a global picture every few days."
"The oceans play a major role in the climate system and possible future changes in currents are important as the oceans interact with（與……相互作用） the atmosphere, taking up, releasing and re-distributing heat and freshwater. These interactions are key processes affecting both weather and climate," he adds.
Professor Robert Gurney from the University of Reading and the National Centre for Earth Observation, who is working on the mission, says: "SMOS will give us global measurements of soil moisture for the very first time. The mission itself is very challenging because it is the first of its type, and allows us to look at a key area of the planet's water cycle. Soil moisture is important for understanding and predicting floods and droughts, and for predicting the future climate."
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