水生動物也會影響洋流
文章來源:未知 文章作者:meng 發布時間:2009-11-23 02:58 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
(單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)

Understanding mixing in the ocean is of fundamental importance to modeling climate change or predicting the effects of an El Niño(厄爾尼諾海流) on our weather. Modern ocean models primarily incorporate the effects of winds and tides. However, they do not generally take into account the mixing generated by swimming animals. More than 60 years ago, oceanographers predicted that the effect of swimming animals could be profound(深奧的,深厚的). Accounting1 for this effort has proven difficult, though, so it has not entered into today's models.

Now Kakani Katija and John Dabiri at the California Institute of Technology have developed a way to estimate the extent of "biogenic(由生物活動產生的)" mixing. After conducting field measurements on swimming jellyfish(水母,海蜇), they built models of how animals mix the waters ocean-wide and concluded that the effect may be extensive.

"Swimming animals may contribute to ocean mixing on the same level as winds and tides," says Katija. "This necessitates2(迫使,需要) the inclusion(包含) of biogenic mixing sources in ocean circulation(海洋環流) and global climate models."

Katija will present these findings this month at the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society's (APS) Division of Fluid Dynamics3 will take place from November 22-24 at the Minneapolis Convention Center.

Most of this mixing is due to the displacement4 created by the movement of animal bodies through the water -- rather than by the turbulence5(喧囂,狂暴) that is stirred up(攪拌,激起) by fish as they swim. This displacement is found to depend primarily on the shape of the animal rather than the dynamics(力學,動力學) of the animal's swimming motion.

Moreover, says Katija, only a small part of the mixing comes from the mighty6 creatures that inhabit the deep. Most of it is due to meeker7, but much more plentiful8, animals -- the tiny krill(磷蝦), copepods(橈足類), and other small critters(動物,生物) that make up the vast majority of organisms swimming in the ocean.



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1 accounting nzSzsY     
n.會計,會計學,借貸對照表
參考例句:
  • A job fell vacant in the accounting department.財會部出現了一個空缺。
  • There's an accounting error in this entry.這筆賬目里有差錯。
2 necessitates 4a421c24d0717e67b81bbcf227596ade     
使…成為必要,需要( necessitate的第三人稱單數 )
參考例句:
  • The increase in population necessitates a greater food supply. 人口的增加需要更多食物供應。
  • Your proposal necessitates borrowing money. 你的提議使借款成為必要。
3 dynamics NuSzQq     
n.力學,動力學,動力,原動力;動態
參考例句:
  • In order to succeed,you must master complicated knowledge of dynamics.要取得勝利,你必須掌握很復雜的動力學知識。
  • Dynamics is a discipline that cannot be mastered without extensive practice.動力學是一門不做大量習題就不能掌握的學科。
4 displacement T98yU     
n.移置,取代,位移,排水量
參考例句:
  • They said that time is the feeling of spatial displacement.他們說時間是空間位移的感覺。
  • The displacement of all my energy into caring for the baby.我所有精力都放在了照顧寶寶上。
5 turbulence 8m9wZ     
n.喧囂,狂暴,騷亂,湍流
參考例句:
  • The turbulence caused the plane to turn over.空氣的激流導致飛機翻轉。
  • The world advances amidst turbulence.世界在動蕩中前進。
6 mighty YDWxl     
adj.強有力的;巨大的
參考例句:
  • A mighty force was about to break loose.一股巨大的力量即將迸發而出。
  • The mighty iceberg came into view.巨大的冰山出現在眼前。
7 meeker 6a86b09fc0f93fbf29abc5a5a10fcdd2     
adj.溫順的,馴服的( meek的比較級 )
參考例句:
  • I know about Greg Meeker and his pathetic little scam. 我了解格雷格·米克和他的可憐的小騙局。 來自電影對白
8 plentiful r2izH     
adj.富裕的,豐富的
參考例句:
  • Their family has a plentiful harvest this year.他們家今年又豐收了。
  • Rainfall is plentiful in the area.這個地區雨量充足。
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