文章來源:未知 文章作者:meng 發布時間:2010-03-19 06:19 字體: [ ]  進入論壇

Leafcutter ant queens can live for twenty years, fertilizing1 millions of eggs with sperm2 stored after a single day of sexual activity. Danish researchers who have studied ants at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama since 1992 discovered that in both ant and bee species in which queens have multiple mates, a male's seminal3 fluid(精液) favors the survival of its own sperm over the other males' sperm. However, once sperm has been stored, leafcutter ant queens neutralize4(中和,抵消) male-male sperm competition with glandular5(腺的) secretions6(分泌物) in their sperm-storage organ.

"Two things appear to be going on here," explains Jacobus Boomsma, professor at the University of Copenhagen and Research Associate at STRI. "Right after mating there is competition between sperm from different males. Sperm is expendable(消耗品) . Later, sperm becomes very precious to the female who will continue to use it for many years to fertilize7 her own eggs, producing the millions of workers it takes to maintain her colony."

With post-doctoral researchers Susanne den8 Boer in Copenhagen and Boris Baer at the University of Western Australia, professor Boomsma studied sperm competition in sister species of ants and bees that mate singly—each queen with just one male—or multiply—with several males.

Their results, published this week in the prestigious9(有名望的) journal, Science, show that the ability of a male's seminal fluid to harm the sperm of other males only occurs in species that mate multiply, and that their own seminal fluid does not protect sperm against these antagonistic10(敵對的,反對的) effects.

"Females belonging to many species—from vertebrates(脊椎動物) to insects-- have multiple male partners. Seminal products evolve rapidly, probably in response to the intense male-male competition that continues even after courtship(求愛,求婚) and mating have taken place," said William Eberhard, Smithsonian staff scientist. "This study continues the STRI tradition of looking at post-copulatory(交配的) selection in a very biodiverse range of organisms, following in the footsteps of people like Bob Silberglied, who asked why butterflies and moths11(飛蛾) have two kinds of sperm in the 1970's."

Similar sperm competition systems appear to have evolved independently in ants and in bees. Researchers now aim to discover how genes12 that control sperm recognition in bees and ants may differ, thus continuing to elucidate13(說明,闡明) the details of a process key to reproduction and evolution.


1 fertilizing 79a37a7878a3e9b841687c9b9748dd60     
v.施肥( fertilize的現在分詞 )
  • Sometimes the preliminary step must be taken of reducing weed population before fertilizing. 有時候,在施肥之前,必須采取減少雜草密度的預備性步驟。 來自辭典例句
  • The self fertilizing garden can also be planted in raised beds. 自我施肥的菜園也可以在苗圃床中種植。 來自互聯網
2 sperm jFOzO     
  • Only one sperm fertilises an egg.只有一個精子使卵子受精。
  • In human reproduction,one female egg is usually fertilized by one sperm.在人體生殖過程中,一個精子使一個卵子受精。
3 seminal Qzrwo     
  • The reforms have been a seminal event in the history of the NHS.這些改革已成為英國國民保健制度史上影響深遠的一件大事。
  • The emperor's importance as a seminal figure of history won't be diminished.做為一個開創性歷史人物的重要性是不會減弱的。
4 neutralize g5hzm     
  • Nothing could neutralize its good effects.沒有什么能抵消它所產生的好影響。
  • Acids neutralize alkalis and vice versa.酸能使堿中和堿,亦能使酸中和。
5 glandular wgExR     
  • Terry has been laid low with glandular fever for nearly a month now.特里由于功能性高燒已臥床近一個月了。
  • A malignant tumor originating in glandular tissue.腺癌起源于腺性組織的惡性腫瘤。
6 secretions dfdf2c8f9fa34d69cdb57b5834c6dbea     
n.分泌(物)( secretion的名詞復數 )
  • Lysozyme is an enzyme found in egg white, tears, and other secretions. 溶菌酶是存在于卵白、淚和其他分泌物中的一種酶。 來自辭典例句
  • Chest percussion and vibration are used with postural drainage to help dislodge secretions. 在做體位引流時要敲擊和振動胸部幫助分泌物松動排出。 來自辭典例句
7 fertilize hk5x8     
  • Fertilizer is a substance put on land to fertilize it.肥料是施在地里使之肥沃的物質。
  • Reading will fertilize his vocabulary.閱讀會豐富他的詞匯。
8 den 5w9xk     
  • There is a big fox den on the back hill.后山有一個很大的狐貍窩。
  • The only way to catch tiger cubs is to go into tiger's den.不入虎穴焉得虎子。
9 prestigious nQ2xn     
  • The young man graduated from a prestigious university.這個年輕人畢業于一所名牌大學。
  • You may even join a prestigious magazine as a contributing editor.甚至可能會加入一個知名雜志做編輯。
10 antagonistic pMPyn     
  • He is always antagonistic towards new ideas.他對新思想總是持反對態度。
  • They merely stirred in a nervous and wholly antagonistic way.他們只是神經質地,帶著完全敵對情緒地騷動了一下。
11 moths de674306a310c87ab410232ea1555cbb     
n.蛾( moth的名詞復數 )
  • The moths have eaten holes in my wool coat. 蛀蟲將我的羊毛衫蛀蝕了幾個小洞。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • The moths tapped and blurred at the window screen. 飛蛾在窗簾上跳來跳去,弄上了許多污點。 來自《現代英漢綜合大詞典》
12 genes 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0     
n.基因( gene的名詞復數 )
  • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你從父母那兒獲得優良的基因,所以能夠活得很長。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它們間的差異將會幫助我們揭開基因多種功能。 來自英漢非文學 - 生命科學 - 生物技術的世紀
13 elucidate GjSzd     
  • The note help to elucidate the most difficult parts of the text.這些注釋有助于弄清文中最難懂的部分。
  • This guide will elucidate these differences and how to exploit them.這篇指導將會闡述這些不同點以及如何正確利用它們。
TAG標簽: species sperm male insects